Category Archives: Tutorials

Print Folder Sizes

Print Folder Sizes And Folder Tree – Folder Size 4.5.0.0

Folder Size was already providing many options to export the folders and print their content but was missing an option to print the folder tree which is located on the left side of the application. The latest version provides an option to print folder sizes tree.

The new options for expanding and collapsing all subfolders are mainly related to this new feature. They should be useful when printing the folder tree in order to expand and collapse multiple folders quickly. Right-click a folder and select “Expand All Sub-folders”. If you want to collapse a certain folder in the tree select “Collapse All Sub-folders”. Using the “minus” icon can do this too, but it does not collapse the subfolders that are located inside.

Here is the complete change-log for this release – Folder Size What’s New?

Folder Sizes

Folder Sizes

How To Print Folder Sizes?

The new feature is extremely easy to use.

  1. Firstly scan the drives or folders that you wish to print. The folder tree on the left-hand side of the application will list the results. Certainly it includes all the folder sizes too.
  2. Secondly, expand the folders that you want to print. Use the new options in the popup menu if you want to expand all subfolders.
  3. After that resize the “Folder Name” column in order to fit all the listed items. The easiest way to do this is to expand the desired folders and then double-click the separator between the “Folder Name” and “Folder Size” columns in the header. This will automatically expand the “Folder Name” column to the size of the longest folder path. If you have expanded too many folders then this operation may take some time – wait for it to complete.
  4. Once you have set the desired state for the folders to be printed select File->Print Folder Tree…
  5. As a result, the print preview window will be displayed. It provides all the options that were already available for printing files. Use the page orientation, print area, margins and all the other options that are listed to format the page.

Print Folder Sizes – Print Preview Settings

Here we will take a look at the options that are available in the print preview window.

Print Folder Sizes

Print Folder Sizes – Print Preview

  1. Open – Loads Print Preview file – *.ppv
  2. Save – Saves all the pages in the current Print Preview Window in a PPV file.
  3. Print To PDF – Select a file name to save the pages as PDF file.
  4. Save as a multi-frame TIFF image.
  5. Print – Will send the pages to the default printer.
  6. Printer Setup – Allows you to set up your printer options.
  7. Show Page Setup – provides options to set margins, paper size, and page orientation.
  8. Show printer’s printable area – displays dotted red frame around the exact printable area
  9. Zoom Out, Zoom To, and Zoom – Use them to adjust the currently visible area of the page
  10. Toggle grayscale mode on or off
  11. Limit printing to one page horizontally – If you have long folder names the tool will print the folders tree to as many horizontal pages as required. Therefore, it allows you to stitch the pages and create a poster. You can limit printing to one page horizontally if required.
  12. The rest of the four buttons allow you to navigate through the pages. Likewise, the left side of the print preview includes thumbnails of the pages that you can use to navigate too.

Print Folder Sizes – Print To File Or Printer

Finally, after you have set everything up just hit the PRINT button to start printing. As a result, it will send the pages to your default printer. Certainly, a better choice is to print to file and go green. For example use the options to print to PPV (Print Preview), EMF, Multi-page TIFF or PDF file. You can print those files later if needed. There are many ways to print folders, but Folder Size makes things very easy.

Folder Size is a FREE tool aimed towards disk cleanup. Printing directory is the least it can do for you.

 

Print Folders And Subfolders – How To Print Directory List

How To Print Folders And Folder Tree?

Printing Folders – What Makes It Difficult?

Usually, it is easy to print several folders that are visible on the screen by taking a screenshot and using an image editing application. You can also use the screen capture application itself to print the image. Unfortunately, if you need to print the entire folder tree and it contains tens or hundreds or more sub-folders the task becomes quite hard.

I will provide several solutions that will help you to print the folder tree.

Print Folders By Taking A Screenshot

As I already mentioned, it is easy to use Windows Explorer to take a screenshot of the folder tree. You can use the screen capture tools that are built-in in Windows to capture and print the desired region. Try also the “Prt Scr” button to capture the entire screen and you can paste it in your favorite image editing application simply by pressing CTRL+V. You should crop the captured image as it includes the entire screen. If the folders that you want to print can not fit on the screen, you can make multiple captures and print them on separate pages.

Printing Folders Explorer

Print Folder Tree

Above is an example where very long paths take too much horizontal space and such an approach may not always be convenient.

Printing Folders From Command Line

There is also the possibility to print the folders from a command line using the DIR command. From the above example you can list the Unicode folder using the command below:

dir /s /AD unicode

In order to do this press WIN+R (RUN) and type CMD in the edit-box.

The dir command lists all files and folders in the current folder. Use the /S flag as it denotes that all sub-folders of the specified folder should be listed. Set the /AD flag to denote that only the FOLDERS should be listed without the file names that are contained inside. The command lists the folders, but the output is not very readable. Furthermore, the UNICODE folder names are not listed properly and question marks are printed instead, which is very strange to me. In the screenshot example above it is visible that those test folders include some non-Latin letters for test purposes. So if you need to print non-Latin file names this may not be a proper solution for you.

Print Folder Command Line

Command Line Print Folder

You can extend the same command to print the content of the folder and all its sub-folders to a text file instead of listing them in the console:

dir /s /AD unicode > FoldersList.txt

Execute the modified command and the results will be saved in a file named FoldersList.txt which is stored in the same folder. The file is in text format hence you can load it in Notepad or Word in order to print it.

Print Folders From Command Line Using The “Tree” Command

Another much better solution for printing the folders is to use the Tree command. Modify the command as follows:

tree unicode > FoldersList.txt /A /F

Tree Command OutputAs a result, the list is much better and the folder structure is easy to understand. Similarly to the last command that we used, the Unicode symbols are replaced with question marks. That is a real mystery to me as Windows should be able to handle those. I will dig this deeper and post an update regarding the problem. If you have a clue, please post it in the comments.

Print Folders With Folder Size

Folder Size is a very powerful tool that can list all folder and file sizes on your computer or network. Printing folders and files is the least that it can do for you. It will handle all the issues that we have faced in the other methods that I described. Folder Size is available for free, but printing folders and files is available only in the licensed version. You can use the free version to visualize the distribution of your disk space and remove unused large files. Use the beautiful charts and the folders and file lists that are sorted by size to easily spot the space hogs.

Print Folders

Print Folders Using Folder Size

While Folder Size is a great free utility we will focus on its folder printing capabilities.

Step By Step Instructions For Printing Folders

  1. Use the scan buttons or file menu in order to scan the desired folder or drive. The tool can scan network locations and external drives too.
  2. Right-click the desired folder and click “Expand All Subfolders”. There are filtering options and an option to remove a folder from the tree. Therefore you can adjust the results in order to print only the data that you need.
  3. Click File->Print Folder Tree
  4. This will display the Print Preview window where you can apply modifications to how the printed folders will look like. Here is the preview window itself:

    Print Folders

    Print Folders Using Folder Size

  5. If the folder tree is too large the folders list will not fit on a single page horizontally. Therefore the application will automatically expand the print area for you and will distribute it over several pages horizontally. There is an option to limit the print area to one horizontal page too.
  6. Tweak the options and set things the way you like them. Finally, you can store the result as PPV (Preview File), PDF File, multi-page TIFF file or print it on paper using the print buttons.

Print Folders – Export to CSV, XLS or TXT File

Folder Size provides robust features for printing the contents of a folder, but if you need to provide extra formatting or apply special changes to the list, the best thing to do is to export the results. You can then edit them in external applications like Microsoft Excel or your favorite text editing application.

There are multiple export options in Folder Size. It can export both folders and files or a mix of both. Exporting the charts as an image is also available.

Use “Export As…” to export all the data that is listed in the application. This includes both files and folders. If you do not need the list of files, you can disable it in settings prior to running a scan. You can limit the depth of the scan to certain level if necessary.

“Export Details View…” will export the list on the right side of the application. It includes all the files and folders in the currently selected folder from the tree view on the left side. You can configure the details to list “Largest file”, “Largest folders”, “Largest files and folders”, oldest and newest files and folders, and the items with the longest paths.

Folders List and Files List Filtering

Folders List and Files List Filtering

The combinations and possibilities are endless if combined with the filtering features which include filtering by folder or file name, sizes, dates, attributes, and every other property that a file or folder has.

Print Folders – Save Folders List

Another feature of Folder Size that may come handy for you is the fact that it can save all the scanned data in an internal project file. The project files are very compact and internally compressed and can hold information for millions of files without occupying too much disk space. As the file and folder structures are changing constantly, if you can not print the current state immediately you can do it on a later date by storing the snapshot of the current state of the drive, in a project file. You can remove folders and files from the tree or apply filtering options before running a scan. Therefore, the stored project file will contain only the files and folders that you need.

You can use the project files to catalog the file and folder structure or to monitor changes to the file system. The project file contains also information about the file and folder sizes, which makes it easy to spot rapidly-growing folders.

Final Thoughts

Above all Folder Size is free and you can download it to check if it will suit your needs. You can use it to find and list all file and folder sizes. Even more, if you do not want to pay for the premium features like printing or network scan, it will do a very good job and help eliminate unused large files. The features included in the free version are sufficient in order to organize the disk space.

Did you discover an easier way to print folder trees or file lists? Message me in the comments section below – I will be glad to hear your solutions.

Find Duplicate Files

Fastest Duplicate Finder – FDFF 5.5.0.2

Fast Duplicate File Finder has proven to be the fastest duplicate finder on the market. As we provide a free version, it is used by millions of users. They have used and tested it for more than a decade. Therefore it is a reliable bug-free tool that has proven itself over the years and is the number one choice of many professionals.

Although there is not much to improve we are always trying to squeeze up as much as possible and improve the performance further. This release improves performance and fixes a minor annoyance. There was an issue where the progress-bar was displaying “100%” for a very long time. This is not something that had to do with the quality of the scan or results. It was only a display problem, but some users thought that the application was stuck especially when scanning large drives.

Fastest Duplicate File Finder

Fastest Duplicate Finder

Fastest Duplicate File Finder – Scan Methods

  1. 100% Equal Files – This is the best mode for a proper duplicate scan. While it is not the fastest of all the supported modes, it is the one that guarantees to list true duplicates. Many tools on the market may perform faster as they use CRC checksums. Such tools produce incorrect results and may lead to permanent loss of data. For example, the CRC or checksum of the file that many such tools are using may identify completely different files as duplicates.
  2. Similar Files – This mode can find similar documents. It is very precise, as a result, it is the slowest of all. In short, you should use it on a smaller subset of files. This is mode can find similar excel, word, txt, pdf, archive and other documents. It can not find similar photos or similar audio files. This article: Which Duplicate File Finder To Choose? explains why we have developed dedicated tools for those tasks.
  3. Similar File Names – this is a fast scan mode that can find similar or duplicate file names. For example, it is useful if you want to find files that are named like: “My Essay (1).doc”, “My Essay March.doc”, “My Essay 2019.txt” and so on. A tutorial for the above two modes is available here: Find Similar Files and Similar File Names
  4. File Size – searching for duplicates by file size is not a reliable method. However, in many cases, it can be helpful. It is extremely fast and you can use it for very large drives. If the files are large the chance for two files to be different and to have exactly the same size gets very low. In conclusion, for large files it is acceptable to use it. As always we do recommend that you review the results prior to removing any files.

Fastest Duplicate File Finder – Tutorial

If you are new to the tool take a look at this tutorial: How To Find Duplicate Files?

We are glad to hear your thoughts and suggestions. Please share them in the comments section below.

Exclude A Folder From Auto-Check – Set “Source” Folder

Compare Two Or More Folders For Duplicates

Compare Two Or More Folders For Duplicates

How To Exclude A Folder From Auto-Check Or How To Set A “Source” Folder

This information applies to:
Fast Duplicate File Finder
Visual Similarity Duplicate Image Finder
Audio Dedupe

The auto-check feature in the duplicate file finder tools automatically selects all except one duplicate file in each group for move/delete. The feature selects the files based on the defined settings like the oldest/newest, largest/smallest files, ones with lower resolutions for images or lower quality for audio files and so on, but sometimes it is necessary to preserve the files in certain “source” folders and exclude them from the selection. That is quite easy by ticking a check-box in front of the folder name in the folders list.

In the folders list tick the ‘Disable Automark For This Folder’ checkbox for the corresponding folder.

Exclude From Auto-Check (Auto-Mark)

Exclude From Auto-Check (Auto-Mark)

A related article can be found here: Compare Folders For Duplicates – How To Compare “Source” And “Target” Folders

How To Compare Two Or More Folders For Duplicates

Compare Two Or More Folders For Duplicates

Compare Two Or More Folders For Duplicates

Compare Folders For Duplicates – How To Compare “Source” And “Target” Folders

This information applies to:
Fast Duplicate File Finder
Visual Similarity Duplicate Image Finder
Audio Dedupe

There are situations where merging folders or comparing two or more folders is necessary. In such cases a “source” folder should not be checked for duplicates and should only be compared with one or more “target” folders. Comparing two or more folders for duplicates is very easy using the “Exclude From Self Scan” feature in the folders list.

Compare Folders For Duplicates

Disable “Self-scan”

If self-scan for folder ‘VSD’ is disabled (as displayed in the image above) the files inside that folder will not be compared against each-other – they will be compared only with files that are located inside the other folders that are added in the folders list.

If self-scan is disabled for the folders ‘VSD’ and ‘VSD1’ the files in ‘VSD’ will be compared with the files in ‘VSD1’ and vice-versa instead of comparing all the files in ‘VSD’ and ‘VSD1’ against each other.

As some of our users still have doubts how this feature works, here are some extra examples:

Scenario1:
Folders in the folder list:
[ ][ ]vsd
[ ][ ]vsd1
All files in both folders are compared against each other.

Scenario2:
Folders in the folder list:
[ ][x]vsd
[ ][ ]vsd1
Files inside ‘vsd’ will be compared only with the files in other folders – in this case ‘vsd1’. They will not be compared with each other. The files in ‘vsd1’ will be compared with the files in all other folders and they will be compared among each other too – which is the difference with ‘vsd’.

Scenario3:
Folders in the folder list:
[ ][x]vsd
[ ][x]vsd1
Files in ‘vsd’ will not be compared against each other. Files in ‘vsd1’ will not be compared against each other. Files in ‘vsd’ will be compared with the files in ‘vsd1’ and vice-versa. If there were more folders in the list files in ‘vsd’ would be compared with those too. Also files in ‘vsd1’ would be compared with them too.

Ticking ‘Disable self scan’ tells the application not to compare the items inside the corresponding folder with each-other.

Self-scan can be disabled for a folder by ticking the checkbox in front of the corresponding folder name. There are two columns in front of the folder name column. The column with the icon that illustrates a red circle with a white dash inside contains the “Disable self-scan” check-boxes.

A related article can be found here: How To Exclude A Folder From Auto-Check Or How To Set A “Source” Folder

Find Similar and Duplicate PSD- Photoshop Document Files (Adobe Photoshop) – Duplicate Photo Finder

Duplicate Photo Finder

Find Similar and Duplicate PSD Files

How to find similar or duplicate photo files – PSD- Photoshop Document Files (Adobe Photoshop)

Photoshop files can grow quite large and saving multiple versions of the same document can lead to huge waste of disk space. Having in mind that even simpler files can take up to 100 MB, a quantity of even 50 unused files will waste 5 GB of disk space. Visual Similarity Duplicate Image Finder provides support for over 100 popular image formats and also 300 RAW camera formats. This of course includes the popular *.psd file format.

While a standard duplicate finder can find exact duplicates, it will not help you in such situation where the images are slightly modified or converted to multiple formats. The Duplicate Photo Finder performs a real image analysis and can identify duplicate and similar photos even if they are edited and stored in various file formats. It is the only similarity tool that supports the complex PSD file format. There is a FREE demo of this low-cost tool available for download at the above link.

About Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems.

Adobe’s 2003 “Creative Suite” rebranding led to Adobe Photoshop 8’s renaming to Adobe Photoshop CS. Thus, Adobe Photoshop CS6 is the 13th major release of Adobe Photoshop. The CS rebranding also resulted in Adobe offering numerous software packages containing multiple Adobe programs for a reduced price. Adobe Photoshop is released in two editions: Adobe Photoshop, and Adobe Photoshop Extended, with the Extended having extra 3D image creation, motion graphics editing, and advanced image analysis features.[7] Adobe Photoshop Extended is included in all of Adobe’s Creative Suite offerings except Design Standard, which includes the Adobe Photoshop edition. However, in 2013, Adobe announced a new brand – Creative Cloud. And the Photoshop version included in this suite is named Photoshop CC. The CC version( Originally 14.0, and will be continuously maintained and upgraded) has 3D content as Photoshop Extended, which means the standard version is canceled.

Alongside Photoshop and Photoshop Extended, Adobe also publishes Photoshop Elements and Photoshop Lightroom, collectively called “The Adobe Photoshop Family”. In 2008, Adobe released Adobe Photoshop Express, a free web-based image editing tool to edit photos directly on blogs and social networking sites. In 2011, a version was released for the Android operating system and the iOS operating system, followed by a release of a version for Windows 8 in 2013.[8][9][10]

Adobe distributes Photoshop in Windows and Macintosh versions.

Free Download: Duplicate Photo Finder

PSD File format

Photoshop files have default file extension as .PSD, which stands for “Photoshop Document.” A PSD file stores an image with support for most imaging options available in Photoshop. These include layers with masks, transparency, text, alpha channels and spot colors, clipping paths, and duotone settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats (e.g. .JPG or .GIF) that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30,000 pixels, and a length limit of 3 Gigabytes.
Photoshop files sometimes have the file extension .PSB, which stands for “Photoshop Big” (also known as “large document format”). A PSB file extends the PSD file format, increasing the maximum height and width to 300,000 pixels and the length limit to around 4 Exabytes. The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints (it is not close to a power of two, as is 30,000) but for ease of software testing. PSD and PSB formats are documented.[15]
Because of Photoshop’s popularity, PSD files are widely used and supported to some extent by most competing software. The .PSD file format can be exported to and from Adobe’s other apps like Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Premiere Pro, and After Effects, to make professional standard DVDs and provide non-linear editing and special effects services, such as backgrounds, textures, and so on, for television, film, and the web. Photoshop’s primary strength is as a pixel-based image editor, unlike vector-based image editors. Photoshop also enables vector graphics editing through its Paths, Pen tools, Shape tools, Shape Layers, Type tools, Import command, and Smart Object functions. These tools and commands are convenient to combine pixel-based and vector-based images in one Photoshop document, because it may not be necessary to use more than one program. To create very complex vector graphics with numerous shapes and colors, it may be easier to use software that was created primarily for that purpose, such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDRAW. Photoshop’s non-destructive Smart Objects can also import complex vector shapes.[16]

Photoshop Language availabilities

Photoshop is available in more than 20 languages. These are the following:

Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Romanian, Turkish and Ukrainian. Arabic and Hebrew are added as of Photoshop CS6.[17]

Free Download: Duplicate Photo Finder

Photoshop Plugins

Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins (or plug-ins). Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe’s specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications.

There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation. The most popular plugins are the filter plugins (also known as a 8bf plugins), available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:

Color correction plugins (Alien Skin Software,[18] Nik Software,[19] OnOne Software,[20] Topaz Labs Software,[21] The Plugin Site,[22] etc.)
Special effects plugins (Alien Skin Software, Auto FX Software,[23] AV Bros.,[24] Flaming Pear Software,[25] etc.)
3D effects plugins (Andromeda Software,[26] Strata,[27] etc.)

Adobe Camera Raw (also known as ACR and Camera Raw) is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resultant images can be processed by Photoshop.[28] It can also be used from within Adobe Bridge.

Free Download: Duplicate Photo Finder

How to Find Similar JPG Files (JPEG – Joint Photographic Experts Group) – Find Duplicate JPG Files

Find Duplicate Photos

Duplicate Photo Finder

How to find duplicate or similar photo files – .jpg, .jpeg, .jpe, .jif, .jfif, .jfi

Visual Similarity Duplicate Image Finder support over 100 popular image formats and also 300 RAW camera formats. The various JPEG file formats are just  a small part of the long list of supported image formats. The tool can find exact duplicates regardless of the image format and also similar images that vary in color, crop size, watermarks and so on. Download a FREE Duplicate Photo Finder demo.

A description of the JPEG file format follows below.

In computing, JPEG (/ˈdʒeɪpɛɡ/ JAY-peg)[1] (seen most often with the .jpg extension) is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JPEG typically achieves 10:1 compression with little perceptible loss in image quality.

JPEG compression is used in a number of image file formats. JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices; along with JPEG/JFIF, it is the most common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web.[citation needed] These format variations are often not distinguished, and are simply called JPEG.

The term “JPEG” is an acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which created the standard. The MIME media type for JPEG is image/jpeg (defined in RFC 1341), except in Internet Explorer, which provides a MIME type of image/pjpeg when uploading JPEG images.[2]

JPEG/JFIF supports a maximum image size of 65535×65535.[3]

The JPEG standard

The name “JPEG” stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the name of the committee that created the JPEG standard and also other still picture coding standards. The “Joint” stood for ISO TC97 WG8 and CCITT SGVIII. In 1987 ISO TC 97 became ISO/IEC JTC1 and in 1992 CCITT became ITU-T. Currently on the JTC1 side JPEG is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) – titled as Coding of still pictures.[4][5][6] On the ITU-T side ITU-T SG16 is the respective body. The original JPEG group was organized in 1986,[7] issuing the first JPEG standard in 1992, which was approved in September 1992 as ITU-T Recommendation T.81[8] and in 1994 as ISO/IEC 10918-1.

The JPEG standard specifies the codec, which defines how an image is compressed into a stream of bytes and decompressed back into an image, but not the file format used to contain that stream.[9] The Exif and JFIF standards define the commonly used file formats for interchange of JPEG-compressed images.

JPEG standards are formally named as Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images. ISO/IEC 10918 consists of the following parts:

Typical usage

The JPEG compression algorithm is at its best on photographs and paintings of realistic scenes with smooth variations of tone and color. For web usage, where the amount of data used for an image is important, JPEG is very popular. JPEG/Exif is also the most common format saved by digital cameras.

On the other hand, JPEG may not be as well suited for line drawings and other textual or iconic graphics, where the sharp contrasts between adjacent pixels can cause noticeable artifacts. Such images may be better saved in a lossless graphics format such as TIFF, GIF, PNG, or a raw image format. The JPEG standard actually includes a lossless coding mode, but that mode is not supported in most products.

As the typical use of JPEG is a lossy compression method, which somewhat reduces the image fidelity, it should not be used in scenarios where the exact reproduction of the data is required (such as some scientific and medical imaging applications and certain technical image processing work).

JPEG is also not well suited to files that will undergo multiple edits, as some image quality will usually be lost each time the image is decompressed and recompressed, particularly if the image is cropped or shifted, or if encoding parameters are changed – see digital generation loss for details. To avoid this, an image that is being modified or may be modified in the future can be saved in a lossless format, with a copy exported as JPEG for distribution.

JPEG compression

JPEG uses a lossy form of compression based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT). This mathematical operation converts each frame/field of the video source from the spatial (2D) domain into the frequency domain (aka transform domain.) A perceptual model based loosely on the human psychovisual system discards high-frequency information, i.e. sharp transitions in intensity, and color hue. In the transform domain, the process of reducing information is called quantization. In simpler terms, quantization is a method for optimally reducing a large number scale (with different occurrences of each number) into a smaller one, and the transform-domain is a convenient representation of the image because the high-frequency coefficients, which contribute less to the over picture than other coefficients, are characteristically small-values with high compressibility. The quantized coefficients are then sequenced and losslessly packed into the output bitstream. Nearly all software implementations of JPEG permit user control over the compression-ratio (as well as other optional parameters), allowing the user to trade off picture-quality for smaller file size. In embedded applications (such as miniDV, which uses a similar DCT-compression scheme), the parameters are pre-selected and fixed for the application.

The compression method is usually lossy, meaning that some original image information is lost and cannot be restored, possibly affecting image quality. There is an optional lossless mode defined in the JPEG standard. However, this mode is not widely supported in products.

There is also an interlaced “Progressive JPEG” format, in which data is compressed in multiple passes of progressively higher detail. This is ideal for large images that will be displayed while downloading over a slow connection, allowing a reasonable preview after receiving only a portion of the data. However, support for progressive JPEGs is not universal. When progressive JPEGs are received by programs that do not support them (such as versions of Internet Explorer before Windows 7)[13] the software only displays the image after it has been completely downloaded.

There are also many medical imaging and traffic systems that create and process 12-bit JPEG images, normally grayscale images. The 12-bit JPEG format has been part of the JPEG specification for some time, but this format is not as widely supported.

Syntax and structure

A JPEG image consists of a sequence of segments, each beginning with a marker, each of which begins with a 0xFF byte followed by a byte indicating what kind of marker it is. Some markers consist of just those two bytes; others are followed by two bytes indicating the length of marker-specific payload data that follows. (The length includes the two bytes for the length, but not the two bytes for the marker.) Some markers are followed by entropy-coded data; the length of such a marker does not include the entropy-coded data. Note that consecutive 0xFF bytes are used as fill bytes for padding purposes, although this fill byte padding should only ever take place for markers immediately following entropy-coded scan data (see JPEG specification section B.1.1.2 and E.1.2 for details; specifically “In all cases where markers are appended after the compressed data, optional 0xFF fill bytes may precede the marker”).

Within the entropy-coded data, after any 0xFF byte, a 0x00 byte is inserted by the encoder before the next byte, so that there does not appear to be a marker where none is intended, preventing framing errors. Decoders must skip this 0x00 byte. This technique, called byte stuffing (see JPEG specification section F.1.2.3), is only applied to the entropy-coded data, not to marker payload data. Note however that entropy-coded data has a few markers of its own; specifically the Reset markers (0xD0 through 0xD7), which are used to isolate independent chunks of entropy-coded data to allow parallel decoding, and encoders are free to insert these Reset markers at regular intervals (although not all encoders do this).

Lossless editing

See also: jpegtran and Commons:User:Cropbot

A number of alterations to a JPEG image can be performed losslessly (that is, without recompression and the associated quality loss) as long as the image size is a multiple of 1 MCU block (Minimum Coded Unit) (usually 16 pixels in both directions, for 4:2:0 chroma subsampling). Utilities that implement this include jpegtran, with user interface Jpegcrop, and the JPG_TRANSFORM plugin to IrfanView.

Blocks can be rotated in 90 degree increments, flipped in the horizontal, vertical and diagonal axes and moved about in the image. Not all blocks from the original image need to be used in the modified one.

The top and left edge of a JPEG image must lie on a 8 × 8 pixel block boundary, but the bottom and right edge need not do so. This limits the possible lossless crop operations, and also prevents flips and rotations of an image whose bottom or right edge does not lie on a block boundary for all channels (because the edge would end up on top or left, where – as aforementioned – a block boundary is obligatory).

When using lossless cropping, if the bottom or right side of the crop region is not on a block boundary then the rest of the data from the partially used blocks will still be present in the cropped file and can be recovered. It is also possible to transform between baseline and progressive formats without any loss of quality, since the only difference is the order in which the coefficients are placed in the file.

Furthermore, several JPEG images can be losslessly joined together, as long as the edges coincide with block boundaries.

JPEG files

The file format known as “JPEG Interchange Format” (JIF) is specified in Annex B of the standard. However, this “pure” file format is rarely used, primarily because of the difficulty of programming encoders and decoders that fully implement all aspects of the standard and because of certain shortcomings of the standard:

Color space definition
Component sub-sampling registration
Pixel aspect ratio definition.

Several additional standards have evolved to address these issues. The first of these, released in 1992, was JPEG File Interchange Format (or JFIF), followed in recent years by Exchangeable image file format (Exif) and ICC color profiles. Both of these formats use the actual JIF byte layout, consisting of different markers, but in addition employ one of the JIF standard’s extension points, namely the application markers: JFIF use APP0, while Exif use APP1. Within these segments of the file, that were left for future use in the JIF standard and aren’t read by it, these standards add specific metadata.

Thus, in some ways JFIF is a cutdown version of the JIF standard in that it specifies certain constraints (such as not allowing all the different encoding modes), while in other ways it is an extension of JIF due to the added metadata. The documentation for the original JFIF standard states:[14]

JPEG File Interchange Format is a minimal file format which enables JPEG bitstreams to be exchanged between a wide variety of platforms and applications. This minimal format does not include any of the advanced features found in the TIFF JPEG specification or any application specific file format. Nor should it, for the only purpose of this simplified format is to allow the exchange of JPEG compressed images.

Image files that employ JPEG compression are commonly called “JPEG files”, and are stored in variants of the JIF image format. Most image capture devices (such as digital cameras) that output JPEG are actually creating files in the Exif format, the format that the camera industry has standardized on for metadata interchange. On the other hand, since the Exif standard does not allow color profiles, most image editing software stores JPEG in JFIF format, and also include the APP1 segment from the Exif file to include the metadata in an almost-compliant way; the JFIF standard is interpreted somewhat flexibly.[15]

Strictly speaking, the JFIF and Exif standards are incompatible because they each specify that their marker segment (APP0 or APP1, respectively) appears first. In practice, most JPEG files contain a JFIF marker segment that precedes the Exif header. This allows older readers to correctly handle the older format JFIF segment, while newer readers also decode the following Exif segment, being less strict about requiring it to appear first.

JPEG filename extensions

The most common filename extensions for files employing JPEG compression are .jpg and .jpeg, though .jpe, .jfif and .jif are also used. It is also possible for JPEG data to be embedded in other file types – TIFF encoded files often embed a JPEG image as a thumbnail of the main image; and MP3 files can contain a JPEG of cover art, in the ID3v2 tag.

Color profile

Many JPEG files embed an ICC color profile (color space). Commonly used color profiles include sRGB and Adobe RGB. Because these color spaces use a non-linear transformation, the dynamic range of an 8-bit JPEG file is about 11 stops; see gamma curve.

Effects of JPEG compression

JPEG compression artifacts blend well into photographs with detailed non-uniform textures, allowing higher compression ratios. Notice how a higher compression ratio first affects the high-frequency textures in the upper-left corner of the image, and how the contrasting lines become more fuzzy. The very high compression ratio severely affects the quality of the image, although the overall colors and image form are still recognizable. However, the precision of colors suffer less (for a human eye) than the precision of contours (based on luminance). This justifies the fact that images should be first transformed in a color model separating the luminance from the chromatic information, before subsampling the chromatic planes (which may also use lower quality quantization) in order to preserve the precision of the luminance plane with more information bits.

Lossless further compression

From 2004 to 2008, new research has emerged on ways to further compress the data contained in JPEG images without modifying the represented image.[22][23][24][25] This has applications in scenarios where the original image is only available in JPEG format, and its size needs to be reduced for archival or transmission. Standard general-purpose compression tools cannot significantly compress JPEG files.

Typically, such schemes take advantage of improvements to the naive scheme for coding DCT coefficients, which fails to take into account:

Correlations between magnitudes of adjacent coefficients in the same block;
Correlations between magnitudes of the same coefficient in adjacent blocks;
Correlations between magnitudes of the same coefficient/block in different channels;
The DC coefficients when taken together resemble a downscale version of the original image multiplied by a scaling factor. Well-known schemes for lossless coding of continuous-tone images can be applied, achieving somewhat better compression than the Huffman coded DPCM used in JPEG.

Some standard but rarely used options already exist in JPEG to improve the efficiency of coding DCT coefficients: the arithmetic coding option, and the progressive coding option (which produces lower bitrates because values for each coefficient are coded independently, and each coefficient has a significantly different distribution). Modern methods have improved on these techniques by reordering coefficients to group coefficients of larger magnitude together;[22] using adjacent coefficients and blocks to predict new coefficient values;[24] dividing blocks or coefficients up among a small number of independently coded models based on their statistics and adjacent values;[23][24] and most recently, by decoding blocks, predicting subsequent blocks in the spatial domain, and then encoding these to generate predictions for DCT coefficients.[25]

Typically, such methods can compress existing JPEG files between 15 and 25 percent, and for JPEGs compressed at low-quality settings, can produce improvements of up to 65%.[24][25]

A freely available tool called packJPG[26] is based on the 2007 paper “Improved Redundancy Reduction for JPEG Files.”

Image Search – How to Search for Similar Photos on a Local Computer or Network

Find Duplicate Photos

Duplicate Photo Finder

How to Search for Similar Images on Local Machine or Network

Visual Similarity Duplicate Image Finder is a tool that can identify similar photos by “looking” at the image content. Unlike the standard duplicate file finders that look at the file data, this duplicate photo finder compares the actual image content and can identify similar images even if they are stored in different file formats. There is a free demo of this duplicate photo finder that you can download and test.

Searching for Similar Images

1. Once the above application is downloaded and installed the main application windows will be displayed:

Image Search Application

Image Search Application

    1. Add the folders that will be searched in the folders list. (1)
    2. Setup the scan method to “Visual Compare”.
    3. Set the similarity threshold to the desired percentage/
    4. Select an existing cache or choose “New Cache” to be prompted for a file name once the scan starts. The cache system dramatically reduces scan time for consequential scans so do not ignore this feature.
    5. Hit the “Search” button on the toolbar. The “Search for Images” dialog will be displayed.(2)
Image Search

Image Search

  1. Add one or more images that will be searched for.(3) There are also options to clear the list or remove the selected images.
  2. Once the sample images are loaded use the “Search” button to start the scan. (4)
  3. Depending on the quantity of the images, their size, the speed of the storage and the performance of the computer this can take some time. Once the search is complete all the similar images will be listed in the main window with their percentage of similarity to the ones in the samples list.
  4. The images in the list can be located via the context menu, moved or deleted.

Make sure to check the free Folder Size tool which can analyze and display disk usage information and help cleanup disks in minutes.

 

Duplicate File Finder – How to Filter Files and Folders

Free Duplicate File Finder

Duplicate File Finder

Duplicate File Finder – How to Filter Files and Folders When Searching For Duplicate Files

When looking for duplicates it is sometimes necessary to filter the results by file type, folder location, file attributes like date or size, file name and other properties – this is possible using the filtering functionality inside Duplicate File Finder.

The filtering settings should be applied prior to starting a scan. This can lead to a much quicker scan if one is interested only in certain file types or locations.

There are plenty of filtering options that can be applied, inside Fast Duplicate File Finder.

Enabling and disabling the filtering option when searching for duplicate files

The filter button is a two state button at the top of the application represented with a funnel icon. When it is off pressing the button will display the filtering options.

  • If the options are applied using the OK button the filtering tool button will stay pressed denoting that filtering is applied.
  • If the filtering dialog is canceled the filtering tool button will remain unpressed denoting that no filtering is applied.
  • If the filtering tool button is pressed, pressing the button for the second time will disable the filtering and the tool button will go up.

Pressing the button for the second time, when it is in its unpressed state will display the filtering window where the last filter can be edited and applied.

 

Find Duplicate Files - Filter Duplicate Files

Duplicate File Finder Filtering Options

Including or Excluding Matches From Duplicate Search

At the bottom of the filtering dialog there is an option that determines whether the items matched by the filtering options will be included or excluded from the results.

Filtering Duplicates By Folder

The folders pane can be used in order to filter the duplicates by location. There are button at the bottom to add or remove folders. The remove button works on the currently selected item.

Filtering Duplicate Files By Type – File Extension

The File Extensions panel provides options to filter files by type. Extensions in format *.ext (asterisk dot extension) can be added in the list. Use the check-boxes in the list in order to toggle file types on or off. The unused (unchecked) items will be removed automatically when the application is restarted.

Filtering Duplicates By File Attributes – File Date, File Size and File Name

The File Attributes panel provides options to filter duplicates by certain file properties. Using the File Size Bigger Than and File Size Smaller Than options in combination with the global Exclude/Include option can search for duplicates inside or outside a certain file size range.

The same applies for the date range and files older, newer or inside/outside a certain period of time can be included or excluded in the results.

There is also an option to filter the files by name which also supports the standard file name wildcards – asterisk that denotes multiple characters or question mark that denotes a single character. For example A*LOT?OF* – will match all files starting with A followed by some other characters then containing LOT followed by a single character that is followed by OF which is followed by any number of other character. Another example is Copy of * – this will match all files that start with “Copy of” and so on.

Using the filter is straightforward and provides a lot of flexibility. Setup the filter options and make sure tho apply them using the OK button in the filtering dialog. The filtering tool bar button will stay pressed (the one with the funnel icon) denoting that the filtering is active. Once the filtering is enabled start the scan to search for the duplicate files that match the filter options.

How To Compare Folders For Duplicates

If the above filtering options are not sufficient there are options to Exclude Folders From Auto-Check and Exclude Folders From Self-Scan. Those will let you compare folders easily.

Take a look at Duplicate Photo Finder and Duplicate Songs Finder for dedicated tools. This small article can be useful in order to chose a duplicated finder.

Largest Files & Largest Folders List in Windows

Largest Files & Largest Folders

Largest Files & Largest Folders

How to List Largest Files & Largest Folders

Finding largest files and largest folders can be really handy in the disk cleanup process. While there is no built-in Windows option to do this there is a FREE Folder Size application that provides this information.

Folder Size is a small disk analysis utility that has also portable version that does not require installation. Listing the largest files and folders is just one of the many handy options of this neat little tool. It can print directory contents, scan network drives, folders, removable media, display the results in pie or bar charts, export the results to Excel, CVS, PDF, EMF, XML, JPG and other file formats.

Download and install Folder Size. Once the application is started select the drive or folder that should be scanned. The scan process is extremely fast and should be complete in seconds, but of course that depends also on the drive/folder size and speed. Once the scan process is complete all the files and folders are listed with their sizes and detailed information. See below how this looks.

Free Folder Size

Free Folder Size

Largest Files Report

List Largest Files

List Largest Files

The Largest Files Report is accessible from the toolbar where you can choose the type of report that is displayed in the details view. By default the application displays the “Files and folders” report which is similar to the one of Windows Explorer, but provides details for the sizes of the folders, the count of files and sub-folders inside and many more. In order to activate the Largest Files report, click the arrow next to the currently active report type and select “Largest files”. (see the image on the left).

The report in this mode looks like the one on the picture above, but includes the top 50 largest files in the currently selected folder and all its sub-folders. Additional column displays the path for every file.

Selecting a different folder from the folders list on the left instantly updates the report with the largest files that are located inside. There is no need to scan anything further.

Largest Folders Report

Largest Folders

Largest Folders

The Largest Folders report is the same as the Largest Files report, but lists the largest folders inside a folder or drive and all its sub-folders. All the information is presented in a neat report that can be exported in multiple file formats or can be printer or saved for further analysis. There is also a graphical representation with Pie and Bar charts and can be used for navigation too.

The top 50 largest folders are listed here too with their properties and sizes.

Mixed Largest Files and Folders Report

This is a combination of the above two reports and displays a mixed list of the largest files and folders.  There are plenty of options that can be accessed via the context menu in all reports. There is an option to locate the file or folder in Windows Explorer, show the properties dialog, copy the path to the selected item, delete the item and many more. The option to remove the item from the list gives an opportunity to evaluate the results of deleting it. If and item is removed it can be easily restored by invoking “Rescan” on the parent folder that owns it.

While there are some similar applications Folder Size is FREE and provides the most accurate results in the shortest time. It is small and does not require much disk space and does not install any services or components that may slow down the system for a feature that is not used daily. Folder Size is a “must have” tool for the disk cleanup process. MindGems Inc. provides also some other popular tools some of which have free versions too. There is a free duplicate file finder and web gallery software, duplicate image finder and duplicate mp3 finder. The screen shots above are created with Easy Screen Capture.